Nigeria – The Giant of Africa

“There is no country in the world with the diversity, confidence, talent and black pride like Nigeria” stated by Kenyan author, Binyavanga Wainana for Nigeria for being a stalwart of black pride and identity. The country regarded as the “Giant of Africa” has 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory known as Abuja, features over 250 different ethnic groups with many different languages. The former British colony is Africa’s most populous country with an estimated population of 202 Million (World Bank 2019) and will double in size to 400 million people by 2050. Nigeria has a diverse geography, with climates ranging from arid to humid equatorial. More spectacular, the Niger Delta (the second-largest delta on the planet), has the highest concentration of monotypic fish families in the world and is also home to sixty percent of Nigeria’s mangrove forests. The country with a name derived from Niger river which is the largest and longest river in West Africa is home to one of the Oldest Locations of Human Existence, The Nok Civilisation (dating back to 1500BC).

It is interesting to know that Nigeria has more Muslims than Saudi Arabia and has the largest Muslim population in sub-Saharan Africa with a religion composition of 52% Islam and 47% Christianity. The country is dominated by Sunni Muslims concentrated in the North whilst the South is dominated by Christians. Religion in Nigeria has also influenced some of the customs and the way of living in most of the Muslim Families as they consider the left hand to be unclean and using it to be a sign of disrespect. Those that believe this do not eat, shake hands or receive items with their left hand. Nigeria’s economy has been driven over the years by Crude oil exports as the nation is the largest producer and exporter of Crude Oil in Africa. The country is a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is a major source of U.S. imports. The region’s biggest economy (an estimated GDP of $397 Billion in 2018) and largest consumer base is reliant on oil and gas for its revenue, the economy itself is more diversified, with manufacturing, banking and insurance, retail and agriculture all major contributors. However, each of these sectors could grow faster and create more opportunities if structural problems are overcome, among them, the country’s electricity shortage, corruption and bureaucratic bottlenecks.

On the Neil economic scale, a can of coke cost 150 Naira (R 5,96) and the price of a litre petrol is 138.62 Naira (R 6,30). Though Nigeria inflation rate fluctuated substantially in recent years it tended to increase through 1999 – 2018 period ending at 12.1 % in 2018 with a 4.43% decline from 2017.

Nigeria has managed to turn the entertainment industry into a major GDP contributor by transforming showbiz from an African perspective. In 2009, UNESCO reported the Nigerian film industry – also known as “Nollywood” – had overtaken Hollywood to become the world’s second-largest film industry, behind India’s Bollywood. In the following decade, output more than doubled to 2,500 films a year – and the industry is continuing to grow, according to a report by PricewaterhouseCoopers. It is estimated to employ more than 1 million people and to generate more than $7 billion for the national economy, accounting for around 1.4% of Nigeria’s gross domestic product. New cinemas are opening, and box office revenue is predicted to reach $22 million by 2021.


How Africa’s Economy is Impacted through the lens of COVID-19?

Declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020, COVID-19 has become a global emergency, given its impact on the entire world population and the economy. COVID-19 is disrupting an interconnected world economy through global value chains, which account for nearly half of global trade, abrupt falls in commodity prices, fiscal revenues, foreign exchange receipts, foreign financial flows, travel restrictions, declining of tourism and hotels, frozen labour market, etc. The Covid-19 crisis is affecting the entire world economy and that of Africa to which many believe is experiencing the lull before the storm. This was echoed by World Health Organization Head of Africa, Matshido Moeti who stated that not only could coronavirus “cause thousands of deaths” in Africa, but it has the potential to “unleash economic and social devastation on the continent”.

African growth has improved considerably over the decade 2000-2010. However, after this decade of “growth”, there were extreme doubts risen on the continents ability to sustain high growth rates for the future. Since then Africa’s growth rates had fallen to 3.3% between 2015 and 2019. The forecasts are projecting a growth rate of 3.4% for 2020. However, with the negative impact of COVID – 19 on key sectors of the economy such as tourism, travel, exports; with falling commodity prices, declining governments’ resources to finance public investment, it would be virtually impossible to achieve this optimistic forecast of growth rates in 2020. Africa is once again facing insufficient growth rates to catch up on the economic lag in the COVID – era.

The Covid19 outbreak has taken a heavy toll on the top five African economies (Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa) which represent more than 60% of Africa’s GDP. The level of the impact of Covid19 on these 5 economies will be representative for the whole of the African economy. The tourism and petroleum sectors represent on average a quarter (25%) of the economy of these countries. As such, growth is expected to drop in these nations. The effects of Covid-19 on global value chains are seen in the fall oil prices which will lead to the deterioration of the Nigerian and Algerian economies. Morocco’s automotive industry, representing 6 % of GDP over the period 2017-2019. Egyptian industries that depend on inputs from China and other foreign countries are affected and unable to meet both domestic and international market needs. The tourism sector is seeing a decline with the restrictions that will negatively impact domestic investments and employment in the country. Remittances are one of the Egyptian foreign sources of financing. It reached in 2018 over $25.5 billion, compared to $24.7 billion in 2017 while in Nigeria, remittances were US$25.08 billion in 2018, contributing to 5.74 % of the GDP. Both countries account for more than 60 % of Africa’s remittances inflows. Lastly, we can surmise that the COVID-19 pandemic will be susceptible to two valuable main sources of income for South Africa: mining and tourism.

The coronavirus outbreak ensured that the Year of the Rat did not get off to the most favourable start at the beginning of the year as the Chinese market had anticipating effect on the South African market. Based on the research analysis the disruption of Chinese market would undoubtedly reduce the demand for South Africa raw materials including iron, manganese and chromium ores to China (which worth an equivalent of 450 million euros exports every year). In late last year, South Africa entered a recession during the fourth quarter of last year, the current crisis will add on to the already deteriorated public finance, health infrastructure and mass unemployment in the country.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development found that for the period (2015-2019), total Africa trade average value was US$ 760 billion per year which represents 29% of Africa’s GDP. Intra-African trade accounts for only 17% of the total trade of African countries. Intra-trade between African nations is one of the lowest compared to other regions of the world, at 16.6% of the total. To date, organisations have not fully addressed the economic impact on individual African countries. This makes the African economy an extrovert economy and vulnerable to shocks and external decisions. A major shift is needed in order to change the trade patterns of African countries within themselves and with the rest of the world particularly with China, Europe, USA and other emerging countries.

The Coronavirus disease poses many serious challenges at global, national and regional levels. The consequences, even if they are difficult to calculate, are expected to be enormous in view of the rapid spread of the Covid-19 and the drastic measures taken by countries whatever their size worldwide. Even if African countries are relatively less affected compared to other regions, for now, the spillover effects from global developments or broken supply chains may still lead to faltering economic activity.


Global leaders in their quest to fight COVID-19 have put in place different measures to ensure the safety of their Citizens. Africa in recent times has had questions asked of its precautions to fight the virus spread in all the 55 States.

South Africa, DRC, Rwanda and Tunisia to date are the only nations in Africa that have announced full-scale citizen lockdown. The fact that only 3 of 55 nations have taken these measures is truly sad and unacceptable. Based on this, leadership in the African Union (AU) is placed under considerable interrogation and severe pressure.

President Cyril Pamaphosa announced a 21-day national Lockdown for South Africa starting midnight 26th of March. It is also common knowledge that President of South Africa is also the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) and has the responsibility to show the same leadership for the country at AU level to the other African states. Today there is no rhythm in Africa’s band as the players seem to be concerned about the sound of their instruments more than cohesion into producing a great song.

The opportunity for Africa, to defend itself against the mass spread of COVID-19 is imminent and now. Leaders will now be judged and remembered for what they did in the time knowing the cause and effect of this pandemic. Africa, from current statistics, lags behind the world-known infections if you compare it to Europe and Asia for example. No doubt​, ​the time has come to take drastic measures to ensure that Africa keeps the spread of the COVID-19 to its bare minimum.

Africa has had the global picture well in advance and no person can deny that the worldwide channels of communication are not effective enough. On all street corners, social gatherings that still take place, the only topic today is COVID-19. The fact that this pandemic crosses all borders, religions, cultures and social classes and has no distinction between rich and poor, is a fact.

The challenges though in Africa is so obvious but needs to be brought up repetitively, but history has shown us it is sadly not done enough. Most African people on the continent are poor, have less access to basic sanitation and no doubt hygiene. The other problem and challenges facing us are that a huge number of Africans are uneducated and thus make the education process on fighting the spread of COVID 19 more difficult.

The huge movement of basic supplies to combat the COVID virus needs to be led by the AU. As of current actions, we also find a huge collective gap coming from an AU central COVID command structure, health updates led aggressively by the AU and indeed if there was such, the promotion, media and continued guidance would be poor if not indeed sad. Leaders must take a collective decision and must make these not to be popular but be secure and in defence of its people. More than one billion people on the continent are in need now of action not talk.

The fact that we have a central body for Africa called the AU, was surely created for such pandemics and the united approach to combat such. Simple daily stats on 55 countries spread and indeed actions to curb it, is needed. Gross public panic versus informing our people needs balance, but global trends like received from the US, Italy, etc are vital.

The question will remain today, apart from lack of a continental lockdown, are we settling supplies for states in Africa for example masks, gloves, and sanitizer stock. I know that we are maybe asking for a form of a federal central state approach, but there is no better method and time to Unite Africa than in this crisis. Africa LOCKDOWN NOW OR NEVER !!!



Corona Virus – The African Perspective

Over the past few weeks, African governments have been holding on tight and asking themselves hard questions concerning the effects of the spread of the virus into Africa. The Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta stated that the worry was not on the ability of China to manage the virus but effects on the countries with poor health systems. Today African Governments are forced to look at the decisions they have made previously in addressing public service offering whereas citizens are getting comfort in having the same health facility at their disposal as the Government Officials. African Political Leaders have been over the past travelling to Malaysia, China, India, and other countries to get special medical assistance and now that the global lockdown is active, they get to face the music with exposure to the same quality health infrastructure as their citizens.

As of Monday 16 March 2020 the countries most affected in Africa with Covid-19 include Egypt with 126 confirmed cases,2 deaths, South Africa with 61 infected, no deaths, Algeria with 48 infected,4 deaths and among the lowest infected countries there are Botswana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, South Sudan, Chad, Somalia and Others with zero cases.

        The Corona Belt Cases recorded and Severity                   The Dominant Flight Routes Network

From the African perspective countries with the greatest connectivity routes wise and passenger compliment in Africa is Cairo (Egypt) and OR Tambo (South Africa) which make 1st and 2ND most affected countries in Africa. Do these figures explain severity according to infrastructure and level of development? The question may not be easy to answer but today the need to contain and reduce the spread remains a top priority as we do not know the severity of the African context with regards to the strength of our economies, health services, and infrastructure.

The effects of the outbreak are undoubtedly devastating to Africa more than anywhere else in the World as Africa is a net importer and relies on Imports from China, India, Europe, and America. With the largest sectors dominated by small scale businesses affected by the inability to procure raw materials and markets outside Africa due to the imposed lockdown, Africa’s vulnerability remains immense and beyond measure. The recent developments that have highlighted that the virus can be passed on before symptoms can be detected are nothing to undermine. Only a handful of countries have the ability and facilities to test for the Coronavirus in labs and the World Health Organization hopes that the number may reach half by month-end.

The state of health facilities Is a mere reflection of the effects that are yet to come. In 2016 the top 5 killers in the world according to the World Health Organisation were:

Rank Top 5 causes of Death (Africa) Top 5 causes of Death (World) Top 5 Causes of Death

(Low-income countries)

1 Lower respiratory tract infections Ischaemic heart disease Lower respiratory tract infections
2 HIV/AIDS Stroke Diarrhea
3 Diarrhea Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Ischaemic heart disease
4 Ischaemic heart disease Lower respiratory tract infections HIV/AIDS
5 Parasites and vector-borne diseases Alzheimer disease Stroke

Africa and Low-income countries have been haunted in the past with high mortality rates from respiratory tract infections. If the major killers from 2016 are still in action, Africa maybe in far much more trouble as this will add on to an existing family of killers. Covid-19 has been known to attack the old, sick and weak, which makes Sub Saharan Africa’s exposure up to 5% as the population of the elderly (+65) is only 5% of the total population.

Today the slogan and change in lifestyle required to contain and manage the spread of the Covid-19 need the support of an enabling environment that works in favour of the people and not of the virus. Mother nature has already proven to be on Africa’s side already as the humidity and temperature are too high than the most severely affected countries and regions.

The above diagram is a true reflection of the population distribution and vulnerability, as this shows that Asia (Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western) where the virus emerged from has the oldest population of more than 44% hence the cases are more fatal. The same can be said for Europe and North America which also have an ageing population of up to 29% of its population.

Despite efforts being made to reduce the panic and detrimental effects that Covid-19 has had globally, Social Media and Technology have not been helping as these platforms have perpetrated more than enough panic attacks in communities, cities, and countries.

Africa remains greatly exposed to the threats brought about by the spread of the virus but mostly because of the capacity to process information and resources for research on the matters of the pandemic. The lacking infrastructure such as access to electricity which hinders communication in education and awareness on the virus and access to water and resources which are essential for hygiene purposes. These are just but a few problems that Africa has, and the next two months will be key in determining the fate of Africa.

Egypt – A land of mysteries

Egypt also is known as the Arab Republic of Egypt is a country in North Africa with great significance in the history of humankind. The oldest surviving work in mathematics was written by the ancient Egyptian scribe Ahmes around 1650 B.C. Found on the Rhine Mathematical Papyrus, it is titled “The Entrance into the Knowledge of All Existing Things and All Obscure Secrets. The ancient Egyptians were the first people to have a year consisting of 365 days divided into 12 months who also invented clocks.

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt “the gift of the Nile”. This mighty river Nile, which flows north from the heart of Africa to the Mediterranean Sea is Egypt’s pride. For the ancient Egyptians, the Nile was mysterious. Unlike most other rivers, it flows south to north, it floods in the summer, and no one knew where the water came from. Explorers discovered the source of the Nile in East Africa just 150 years ago. Mystery surrounds Egypt’s origin, its religion, and its monumental architecture: colossal temples, enormous Sphinx and the pyramids which are the only remaining wonder of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Even though Mexico, not Egypt, has the largest pyramid in the world in terms of volume, Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Cheops at Giza remains popular than The Cholula Pyramid (sometimes referred to as Quetzalcoatl) of Mexico which was built around the year A.D. 100.

Today, Egypt is the world’s most populous Arab country and the third most populous nation in Africa, (Nigeria 1st and Ethiopia 2nd). Located in the north-eastern corner of Africa, where Africa and Asia meet, it links the Muslim countries of southwest Asia with those of North Africa. Cairo is Egypt’s capital and the largest city and the largest city in Africa. Situated on both banks of the Nile, it is Egypt’s commercial and cultural Centre as well as the seat of government. Egypt’s second most important waterway is the Suez Canal, which links the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea. The canal is one of the world’s chief commercial waterways. The canal and the Isthmus of Suez are the traditional boundaries between Africa and Asia.

Egypt’s economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Agriculture, hydrocarbons, manufacturing, tourism, and other service sectors drove the country’s relatively diverse economic activity. Egypt’s economy is growing rapidly. Gross domestic product (GDP) grew to 5.6% in the third quarter of 2019 against 5.4% in the same period of 2017-2018. The North African state is now targeting 6% GDP growth in the 2019/20 fiscal year which runs from 1st July to 30th June. The country’s economic freedom score is 52.5, making it’s economy the 144th freest in 2019 and is ranked 11th among 14 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. The single biggest donor of Egypt is the US government, which has provided more than USD 25 billion in economic assistance since 1975.

On the “Neil economic scale”, a can of coke cost 3.50 EGP (R 3,18) and the price of litre petrol is 8.75 EGP (R 7,96). Though Egypt’s inflation rate annual inflation rate dropped to 2.4 percent in October 2019 marking the lowest annual inflation rate in recent records. The inflation rate plunged from 17.5 percent in October 2018 to 2.4 percent in October 2019.

It is amazing to imagine that an ancient civilization like Egypt’s invented toothpaste, paper as well as keys and locks. The Egyptians are intelligent people with a glorious history which has left a mark on civilization and we continue to celebrate it through counting and time. We question whether the land of mysteries is a part of this world or a portal to another dimension of life imagine before Facebook came to Egypt to showcase user identification, forensic fingerprint powder had been used for fingerprints, yip, the world’s oldest synthetic pigment produced by yours truly – ancient Egyptians, proud Africa.

South Africa is at major crossways on all fronts

It gives me great pleasure and remains a huge privilege to welcome my readers to the 2020 launch of another stunning year of reflections on African business and economic focus.

May I take the opportunity from the outset to thank all of my readers for the massive support, continued interactions and messages based on the 36 African focus articles of 2019.

I truly look forward in 2020 to a larger response and even larger suggestions on matters that concern and interest you about Africa.

The year starts well for South Africa, as it is in the seat, chairing the African Union (AU) in 2020. Many would argue that, domestically, South Africa is at major crossways on all fronts and indeed matters of leadership, economy and investors confidence, are on the minds of all interested parties.

On a global front, many in the African business sphere, are keeping a very close focus on specifically three countries’ actions and influences on the African continent.

The US, China and Britain, no doubt have huge investment and trade stake holdings in Africa. The US is interesting, as the continued embattled Trump administration needs to declare what 2020 holds for them on their trade policies to African nations.

China, no doubt for the past decade, has been a major player in Africa, in specific funding and construction. With the global economy going through ups and downs and a so-called imminent cease-fire in the US-China trade wars, the rising superpower might wish to advance its expansion into Africa in 2020.

Last, but not least, is the UK, with all eyes focused on the intended Brexit date tomorrow. No doubt with Brexit still pending, the UK will seek more openings in other markets, and it seems there is now a new view on capturing the old markets and trade of the Commonwealth areas. This would make sense, but it is imperative that should a shift be on the cards to renew the old partnership between the UK and Africa, Africa fights for a better deal. Anything less would be a revival of the past colonial era.

One of the greatest challenges facing Africa remains the lack of infrastructure and planning of such projects on the continent. Several countries have major national development plans in progress, but the bankability of these projects is severely lacking.

The AU should be the focus on a master infrastructure plan to connect Africa. Hopefully 2020 will bring a revival to all of the 55 nations in Africa, as they strive for a united Africa.

Algeria – Islands of the Mazghanna Tribe

Algeria is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by Morocco, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Libya, Tunisia, and Western Sahara. Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, and the largest in the Arab world and Africa (followed by Democratic Republic of the Congo). Only 12 percent of its land is inhabited with over 90 percent of the country covered by the Sahara Desert. Algiers is the country’s Capital City and an important economic, commercial and financial centre. The name Algiers, is a truncated form of the city’s older name Jazā’ir Banī Mazghanna (جزائر بني مزغنة, “Islands of the Mazghanna Tribe”.

The former French colony which gained its independence in 1962 is well known for its cherries and dates which are amongst the best in the world. There is also a variety of bird species which makes the country an attraction for bird watchers.

The country has an estimated population of 42.2 Million and a GDP of $180 Billion (World Bank 2018). Petroleum and natural gas make up 98 %t of the country’s exports. The country’s crude oil reserves were the 16th largest in the world with 12,200 million barrels of oil reserves (at the start of 2017) and they are the 3rd largest producer of crude oil in Africa (2019). Algeria’s economy is highly dependent on hydrocarbons, and on global oil and gas prices. GDP growth reached 1.5 percent in 2018, compared to 1.4 percent in the previous year, and was sustained at 1.5 percent the first quarter of 2019. Growth in the hydrocarbon sector was slow, with economic activity contracting by 6.5 percent in 2018
During the 1990s – 2000s, Algeria fought a brutal civil war against an Islamist insurgency and the memories of those dark years have often kept demonstrators at bay. The protesters have rejected the vote, the first since former President Bouteflika was forced out by the military amid nationwide demonstrations in April, citing fears that the election is a mechanism for the political elite to retain power.

Algeria’s religion composition is made of Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%. Women in Algeria, unlike those in other Islamic nations, make up 60 percent of the student population. They also have considerable prominence in society as 70 percent of Algeria’s lawyers and 60 percent of its judges are women. Algerian women make a larger contribution to household income than their male counterparts which is special looking at their religion and culture on gender orientation.

On the Neil Economic Scale, the price of a can of coke is 69.57 Algerian Dinar (DZD) (R8.59) and the price of a litre of petrol is 41.97 DZD (R5.18). The country has an average inflation rate of 2.5%.

Algeria is one of a handful of countries that have achieved 20% poverty reduction in the past two decades. The Algerian government took significant steps to improve the well being of its people by implementing social policies in line with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. The country’s oil boom has enabled the authorities to clear Algeria’s external debt, invest in infrastructure projects, and improve the country’s Human Development Indicators. Algeria has significantly improved its human capital development: its position on the World Bank Human Capital Index (HCI) that measures five key indicators in health and education is 93rd out of 157 countries. Between 2012 and 2017, its HCI value remained more or less constant at 0.52, however in 2017, it was lower than the average for its region and income group. The resignation of president Abdelaziz Bouteflika has also left the country uncertain and the youths hoping for regime and system change.

CHAD – The Dead Heart of Africa


Chad, named after Lake Chad, is a landlocked Sahelian country in central Africa which is often referred to as the “Dead Heart of Africa’’ due to its distance from the sea and desert climate. The country is bordered by Cameroon in the southwest, by the Central African Republic in the south, by Libya in the north, by Niger in the west, by North Sudan in the east and it has a border with Nigeria just across Lake Chad. Chad is the largest of the 16 landlocked countries in Africa.

It gained independence from France in 1960, though France still remains a source of Chad’s budget, funding about 30% of the national budget. After independence, Idriss Deby who was an army officer and a graduate from Muammar Gaddafi’s World Revolutionary Center helped Hissen Habre topple Goukouki Oueddei government in 1982. Furthermore, in 1990 after being appointed as the chief military adviser to the Presidency, Idriss Deby toppled the government of President Hissene Habre and he became the president of Chad. Since then he is still Chad’s president making him the 4th longest current serving African President with 29 years in power.

With a population of 15.8 million, GDP of $11.05 billion and the unemployment rate of 5.9%, Chad is one of the world’s least developed countries, with a Human Development Index (HDI) ranking of 186 out of 189 countries and territories (UNDP, 2018). The country is ranked 165 out of 180 countries in the 2018 Transparency International corruption perception index and 182 among 190 economies in the World Bank Doing Business 2019 report.

Chad’s main economic activities are primarily agriculture i.e rearing of livestock, Cotton, Cattle and Gum Arabic which are primary non-oil exports. In 2017 the sector accounted for almost 50% of GDP and it also employees 90% of the population. However, the economy depends heavily on oil, which accounted on average for 78% of total exports in 2016– 18 and 89% in 2018. Oil revenues averaged more than 65% of total non-grant revenues and 60% of the national budget. This dependence on oil revenue affected the public debt which rose up to 49.2 % of GDP in 2018 however, there has been a recovery in the oil prices which might result in an estimated fall to 45.4% in 2020 (AEC,2019). The country is said to have gold deposits, silver, diamonds, quartz, bauxite, granite, tin, tungsten, uranium, limestone, kaolin, and salt (ATA,2019) despite its dependency on oil.

The major exports in 2017 were led by Crude Petroleum which represents 92.3% of the total exports of Chad, followed by Insect Resins, which account for 2.67%. The imports were led by Packaged Medicament’s which represent 6.47% of the total imports of Chad, followed by Soap, which accounts for 3.41%. The top export destinations are the United States, China, the Netherlands, India, and Turkey, and top import origins are China, France, Cameroon, India, and Belgium-Luxembourg.

On the Neil Economic Scale, the price of a can of coke in Chad is 597 CFA (R14.85) and a litre of petrol costs 600 CFA (R14.92). Inflation Rate is -2.8 which is rare in Africa.

Investing in Chad has been difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and poor governance. The country is also experiencing violence and instability from internal rivalries between ethnic groups, conflicts in neighbouring countries and fighting the extremist group Boko Haram, which have negatively impacted the country’s competitiveness and growth. The government has however made regional integration a pillar of its development strategy and also assisting more than 450 000 refugees from neighbouring countries who make 4% of Chad’s population.

Djibouti – Land of the White Gold

The country named after its capital, Djibouti City, Djibouti lies in northeast Africa on the Gulf of Aden in the Horn Of Africa and at the southern entrance to the Red Sea. Formerly known as French Somaliland (1896–1967) and the French Territory of the Afars and Issas (1967–77), the country took Djibouti as its name when it gained independence from France on June 27, 1977. It borders Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia. The country which is almost the size of Massachusetts, is mainly a stony desert, with scattered plateaus and highlands

With an estimated population of 960 000 people and a GDP of $1.97 Billion (World Bank 2018), the country is home to the 3rd most Saline Body water and 6th in the World called lake Assal. The lake is a crater lake in the Danakil Desert in central Djibouti. Dormant volcanoes and black lava fields back its emerald water.

More than 155m below sea level, it’s the lowest point in Africa and the third-lowest point on Earth after the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. No outflow occurs from the lake, and due to high evaporation, the salinity level of its waters is 10 times than that of the sea. Lake Assal is the world’s largest salt reserve which has been named the “White Gold” and has given life to its nation.

Djibouti has had its geographical location working to its advantage which can be seen in the Developed countries’ interests in setting up either a base or shipping representation in the country. located at the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, the gateway of the Suez Canal – through which 10 percent of the world’s oil exports and 20 percent of all commercial goods travel. The Gulf of Aden/Red Sea is a critical water space, through which a significant amount of global merchant shipping passes, China has advanced in taking advantage of this by setting up a military base in Djibouti in 2017 – a step that elevated the African nation’s status while sparking concerns over China’s military might. This forms China’s “Belt and Road Initiative”, supporting Beijing’s juggling of commercial and military objectives in Africa. It hosts other military bases for France, the United States, Japan, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as other foreign countries with forces supporting global anti-piracy efforts.

The country’s economy has been driven by a state-of-the-art port complex, among the most sophisticated in the world. The size of its economy limits its ability to diversify production and increases its reliance on foreign markets, making it more vulnerable to market downturns and hampering its access to external capital. The country has low agricultural productivity as only 4% of the country’s land is arable, hence relying on imports for food supply.

On the Neil Economic Scale, the price of a can of Coke in Djibouti is 90 DJF (Djiboutian franc) (R7.48) and the price of a litre of petrol is 220 DJF (R17.30). The inflation rate is around 2.18%.

Djibouti’s Doing Business ranking improved from 171th in 2016 to 99th in 2018. The government continues to focus on financial-, telecommunications-, and trade-related services, solidifying the country’s position as an important regional business and trade hub in the Horn of Africa. As a result, the economy relies heavily on the service sector, which accounts for some four-fifths of the country’s gross domestic product. The government of Djibouti has maintained a good and stable political environment and governance issues are not part of the list of problems but most significant are environmental problems – deforestation, desertification, water pollution, and the protection of its wildlife. The country remains with great potential bigger and greater than its size.

Sierra Leone – The Lion Mountains


Characterised by British Colonial Heritage which came to an end on the 27th of April in 1961, Sierra Leone is an English-Speaking country in West Africa bordered by Guinea in the Northeast, Liberia in Southeast and The Atlantic Ocean in the Southwest.

Named the “Lion Mountains” by the Portuguese Explores, Sierra Leone has an estimated population of 7.6 Million and an estimated GDP of 4 Billion (World Bank 2018). The largest and Economic Hub of the country is its Capital city Freetown. The country has gone through several coups and has had its fair share of unrest, civil wars, and Ebola outbreaks but it remains as one of the most religiously tolerant countries with the 77% Muslim majority coexisting with the 23 % Christian minority with close to nonreligious driven conflict.

Sierra Leone like many of its African compatriots is richly blessed with many natural resources like Diamond, Iron, and Gold. In 1972 On February 14, the country made headlines when the world’s third-largest gem-quality diamond- called the “Star of Sierra Leone”- was discovered in Koidu. Historically the diamonds became the source of unrest as the rebel groups had control of the major diamond deposits and they became known as Blood Diamonds as they fuelled procurement of arms and gave rise to the uprising in the country for more than 4 decades. Today the country remains one of the top 10 largest producers of Diamonds in the world and artisanal mining is still the second-largest employer from agriculture in the country.

Sierra Leone remains dependent on agriculture which can be seen by the 60% contribution to the GDP of the agriculture sector in 2017 with major cash crops like Coffee, rice and cocoa production. The stagnation of the economy in 2018 could be explained the reduction in mining sector output as they were a major disruption in productivity on the Tonkolili and Marampa mines which are major Iron-ore mines. This could persist to 2019 as the government has cancelled major Mining Licenses including Tonkolili and Marampa. Sierra Leone’s President Julius Maada Bio, since his election last year, has been reviewing mining contracts and considering changes to the law that would ensure the West African nation benefits from its natural resources.

Electricity supply is still a major constraint in the country and the lack of infrastructure, and an unfavourable business environment will also continue to harm growth. Tourism prospects were also particularly affected by this situation, and China cancelling funding $400m (£304m) for a new airport near the capital in 2018. The IMF has advised the country to avoid huge capital projects which could put the country in a debt trap as the level of public debt (62.99 % of GDP in 2018) is too high.

On the Neil Economic Scale, the price of a can of coke in Sierra Leone is 11407.50 SLL (R17.14) and the price of a liter of petrol is 8,500 SLL (R12.77). The average Inflation rate is 15.2%.

Sierra Leone remains a great country with so much potential of transforming the prospects of its people. The new Government through President Julius Maada Bio has put in place new measures to fight against corruption, improve the quality of life of the population by channelling revenue generated from its natural resources to the development of the country. The estimated $250 Million foreign currency generated from diamond exports could do so much good for the people of Sierra Leone and the government has been trying to improve governance of strategic resources to ensure the beneficiation of the people.